On February, 14 2019, a suicide bomber attacked a convoy of Indian security forces they're getting reports of multiple casualties in a row killed at least 40 Indian soldiers here in Kashmir, the deadliest attack, the region has seen this century. The bomber was part of an Islamic militant group based in Pakistan, lies, Muhammad claimed responsibility for that attack. 12 days later, India carried out airstrikes in northwestern Pakistan, then Pakistan shot down at least one Indian aircraft around here. Tensions rose between the two rival nations.
It can escalate to escalate serious escalation in years. Kashmir is one of the most disputed places on earth over the course of 70 years, it's been at the center of three wars fought between two massive, armies, it's heavily occupied by more than half a million Indian troops and a deadly collection of militias and terrorist groups. Kashmir is the stage for the relentless conflict between India and Pakistan. But focusing on these two countries can obscure.
What's, really at stake, the voice of Kashmiris who are caught in a vicious cycle of violence. Whenever there is any conflict between India and Pakistan, Kashmir is always the battleground. Kashmir is a disputed area it. Neither belongs to India nor belongs to Pakistan, two giants of nuclear giants. We are nothing in between them. There is always uncertainty. You know, you never know what is going to happen.
It can be a heir tail. It can be a strike it can no anybody can be killed anytime. We are the pawns in.
Their hands it's, a mess, it is a mess, and we have been affected in every possible, direct and indirect way. I have been born in this conflict. And I have to die within this conflict. Kashmir is one of the most strategic places in the world, where three powerful countries collide, India, Pakistan and china, china invaded and took this slice of Kashmir from India and was given this one by Pakistan, India and Pakistan control these parts, but lay claim to more this region is at the center of a brutal conflict. Over these disputed borders.
So it's important to start when the borders were being drawn in the mid-1800s. India was a patchwork of several hundred provinces and princely states under British rule. A century later when British India won independence, the British left and hastily decided to split the region into two. These areas would be a new muslim-majority country Pakistan.
And this would be the mostly Hindu, but secular India, the partition was bloody communal hatred flares up in the Punjab one.A Million people become refugees overnight. They flee from savagery and butchery that has never been exceeded. Even in India's stormy history amid the chaos.
Some princely states were given the choice to join either country. In most cases, the ruling monarchs followed the will of their people. But this state called jammy and Kashmir was different. It was right along this new border and had a muslim-majority population, but was ruled by a Hindu monarch. When asked to pick a side, the ruler chose to stay. Neutral, fearing that the monarch would join India.
The Kashmiri population rebelled here in 1947., armed tribesmen from Pakistan. Soon joined the fight. The monarch turned to India for military help. And an exchange agreed to join them, which sparked the first indo-pakistan war in Kashmir, continuing thus increase the threat to world peace and brought the dispute to the attention of the United Nations. The u.n security council brokered a ceasefire in 1949, which established this line with Pakistan.
Controlling this side and India. This one, it also asked Pakistani tribesmen to withdraw and Indian troops to follow so that Kashmir could hold a direct vote to decide its own future. But neither held up their end of the deal Pakistan, argued that Kashmir's muslim-majority population rightfully belonged with them while India insisted that Kashmir was handed over to them by the Hindu monarch. So they doubled down and added Kashmir to their constitution. The vote was never held.
I think every person in. Kashmir has been affected by India and Pakistan. The Kashmir is completely destroyed by India as well as by Pakistan.
This is a territorial dispute. They call it. They don't need people. The main stakeholders are the Kashmiris their opinions are not being heard. Both countries continue to tighten their grip around it for decades. Kashmir fighting is going on and heavy casualties in men and equipment have been inflicted on the aggressor in 1965.
The second indo-pakistan war broke out in Kashmir, thousands. Of people were killed between the huge armies on both sides, a ceasefire ended the war, but didn't change. This line Kashmir was kept divided and occupied.
Another war broke out in 1971. This time, the focus wasn't in Kashmir. It was in east Pakistan here, India helped rebels fight for independence and dealt Pakistan. A devastating defeat this region became a new country, Bangladesh and Pakistan lost its eastern half. This made Kashmir more important than ever. It became one of the most militarized places. On earth as India and Pakistan, deployed planes tanks artillery and soldiers along the line of control on the political front in 87.
India, reportedly rigged, an election declaring, a provincial party as the winner. Now, this was a big turning point for many Kashmiris, who felt they were again, denied the chance to vote thousands took to the streets in Indian controlled Kashmir to protest the occupation, but India met the movement for independence with harsh resistance, which quickly escalated to more. Violence in January security forces opened fire on demonstrating separatists, turning a two-year-old struggling movement into a full-blown popular uprising. More than 650 people have been killed in clashes between troops and separatists Kashmiri militias like the jammy and Kashmir liberation front started recruiting Muslim youth to fight for independence.
And increasingly attacked the Indian military Pakistan saw an opportunity in this insurgency. They helped introduce a new kind of militant group. Radical Islamic fighters who fought for more pro-pakistan Kashmir by the mid-90s. These groups dominated the insurgency India responded with incredible military force, deploying 500 000 troops to Kashmir, and they cracked down on militants and protesters unarmed.
Civilians were killed and many were forced to flee the violence and in 98, the stakes were raised yet again today, India conducted three underground nuclear tests Pakistan today. Successfully conducted five nuclear tests' Kashmir became a. Battleground between two nuclear armed nations. And another war broke out in 1999, evidence of the attacks being launched on the Indian controlled area of Cargill. The past two days have seen some of the fiercest fighting so far militant Muslim fighters have also crossed over into some parts of Indian ruled Kashmir. The 1999 war ended with another ceasefire, but that didn't stop either country over the years. Pakistan's, militant groups got bolder and launched terror attacks in and outside of Kashmir. In 2001, members of lashkar-e-taiba, bombed India's, parliament building in New Delhi, killing 14 people.
And in 2008, 10 militants from the same group killed 174 people and wounded 300 in Mumbai. Meanwhile, Indian military cracked down in Kashmir firing bullets and pellets on unarmed protesters, leaving hundreds wounded and blind. This is the vicious cycle of violence.
The Indian army's crackdown drives some Kashmiris to join pakistani-backed militant groups who carry out violence against the Indian. Forces it's a cycle that Kashmiri civilians are stuck in the middle of just because of this conflict, we are losing our young generations because we are getting killed every second day. We had a neighbor that two boys were killed. Three boys were killed. And there is anger, you know, among young generations, there are psychological effects of the conflict. Okay, everybody is facing some sort of problem in Kashmir hopelessness is everywhere due to this conflict. When you snatch pens from youth, you are.
Still forcing them to pick up guns, which brings us back to 2019. The suicide bomber was 19 year, old, ADSL Ahmad from Panama Kashmir, according to his parents in 2016, Indian police officers stopped him and humiliated him by forcing his face into the ground. The same year. He was shot in the leg at a protest.
The next year, DAR left home with his brothers to join Aisha Mohammed, a Pakistani supported militia that radicalized him and trained him to be a suicide bomber a year later. He drove explosives. Into an Indian military convoy for more than 70 years, India and Pakistan have driven a cycle of violence, retaliation and exploitation in Kashmir, but beneath it. All is the Kashmiri's wish to make a choice.
A wish that continues to be suppressed again and again, by violence, the best way to handle the Kashmir situation to have is to have a dialogue and to hold a referendum. And both of the countries are not doing anything as such in every action. There is equal and opposite direction. The more suppression.
You face the more you rise, I just want to get a freedom to get a right to do everything as a teenager. I have big dreams, but as a Kashmiri, the dreams are surprising here. You.